1. Attentionn Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
2. Bipolar disorder
3. Borderline personality
5. Posttraumatic stress
6. Psychotic disorders
7. Substance abuse
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Borsini A, Alboni S, Horowitz MA et al. Rescue of IL-1β-induced reduction of human neurogenesis by omega-3 fatty acids and antidepressants. Brain Behav Immun. 2017 May 18.
Andruchow ND, Konishi K, Shatenstein B et al. A Lower Ratio of Omega-6 to Omega-3 Fatty Acids Predicts Better Hippocampus-Dependent Spatial Memory and Cognitive Status in Older Adults. Neuropsychology. 2017 Apr 10.
Deyama S, Ishikawa Y, Yoshikawa K et al. Resolvin D1 and D2 reverse lipopolysaccharide-induced depression-like behaviors through the mTORC1 signaling pathway. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2017 Apr 13.
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Woo J, Couturier J, Pindiprolu B, Picard L, Maertens C, Leclerc A, Findlay S, Johnson N, Grant C, Kimber M. Acceptability and tolerability of omega-3 fatty acids as adjunctive treatment for children and adolescents with eating disorders. Eat Disord. 2016 Dec 9:1-8.
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Kim SW, Jhon M, Kim JM et al. Relationship between Erythrocyte Fatty Acid Composition and Psychopathology in the Vienna Omega-3 Study. PLoS One. 2016 Mar 10;11(3):e0151417. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0151417. eCollection 2016.
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Aukema HM, Winter T, Ravandi A, Dalvi S, Miller DW, Hatch GM5. Generation of Bioactive Oxylipins from Exogenously Added Arachidonic, Eicosapentaenoic and Docosahexaenoic Acid in Primary Human Brain Microvessel Endothelial Cells. Lipids. 2015 Oct 6.
Meyer BJ, Byrne MK, Collier C, Parletta N, Crawford D, Winberg PC, Webster D, Chapman K, Thomas G, Dally J, Batterham M, Farquhar I, Martin AM, Grant L. Baseline omega-3 index correlates with aggressive and attention deficit disorder behaviours in adult prisoners. PLoS One. 2015 Mar 20;10(3):e0120220. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0120220.
Larrieu T, Hilal LM, Fourrier C, De Smedt-Peyrusse V, Sans N, Capuron L, Layé S.Nutritional omega-3 modulates neuronal morphology in the prefrontal cortex along with depression-related behaviour through corticosterone secretion. Transl Psychiatry. 2014 Sep 9;4:e437.
Lotrich FE, Sears B, McNamara RK. Anger induced by interferon-alpha is moderated by ratio of arachidonic acid to omega-3 fatty acids. J Psychosom Res. 2013 Nov;75(5):475-83.
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Stahl LA, Begg DP, Weisinger RS, Sinclair AJ. The role of omega-3 fatty acids in mood disorders. Curr Opin Investig Drugs. 2008 Jan;9(1):57-64.
van Strater AC, Bouvy PF. Omega-3 fatty acids and mood disorders. Am J Psychiatry. 2006 Nov;163(11):2018; author reply 2018-9
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Attentionn Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD
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Patrick RP, Ames BN. Vitamin D and the omega-3 fatty acids control serotonin synthesis and action, part 2: relevance for ADHD, bipolar, schizophrenia, and impulsive behavior. FASEB J. 2015 Feb 24. pii: fj.14-268342.
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Königs A, Kiliaan AJ. Critical appraisal of omega-3 fatty acids in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder treatment. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2016 Jul 26;12:1869-82. doi: 10.2147/NDT.S68652. eCollection 2016.
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Wu Q, Zhou T, Ma L, Yuan D, Peng Y. Protective effects of dietary supplementation with natural ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the visual acuity of school-age children with lower IQ or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Nutrition. 2015 Jul-Aug;31(7-8):935-40.
Gow RV, Hibbeln JR, Parletta N. Current evidence and future directions for research with omega-3 fatty acids and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2015 Mar;18(2):133-8.
Milte CM, Parletta N, Buckley JD et al. Increased Erythrocyte Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid Are Associated With Improved Attention and Behavior in Children With ADHD in a Randomized Controlled Three-Way Crossover Trial. J Atten Disord. 2013 Nov 8.
Richardson A. Background to the DOLAB Studies: Omega-3 and Child Behaviour and Learning. Omega-3 DHA and Children’s Behaviour and Learning: New Insights from the ‘DOLAB’ Studies. 4 September 2013 - The Royal College of Surgeons, London.
Dervola KS, Roberg BA, Wøien G et al. Marine omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids induce sex-specific changes in reinforcer-controlled behaviour and neurotransmitter metabolism in a spontaneously hypertensive rat model of ADHD. Behavioral and Brain Functions 2012;8(56):13 p.
Bloch MH, Qawasmi A. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation for the treatment of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptomatology: systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2011;50(10):991-1000.
Gustafsson PA, Birberg-Thornberg U, Duchén K et al. EPA supplementation improves teacher-rated behaviour and oppositional symptoms in children with ADHD. Acta Paediatr. 2010 Oct;99(10):1540-1549.
Johnson M, Ostlund S, Fransson G, Kadesjö B, Gillberg C. Omega-3/omega-6 fatty acids for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a randomized placebo-controlled trial in children and adolescents. J Atten Disord. 2009 Mar;12(5):394-401.
Gow RV, Matsudaira T, Taylor E, Rubia K, Crawford M, Ghebremeskel K, Ibrahimovic A, Vallée-Tourangeau F, Williams LM, Sumich A. Total red blood cell concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids are associated with emotion-elicited neural activity in adolescent boys with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2009 Feb-Mar;80(2-3):151-6.
Sorgi PJ, Hallowell EM, Hutchins HL, Sears B. Effects of an open-label pilot study with high-dose EPA/DHA concentrates on plasma phospholipids and behaviour in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Nutr J. 2007;6:16.
Burgess JR, Stevens L, Zhang W, Peck L. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;71(1 Suppl):327-30.
Mitchell EA, Aman MG, Turbott SH, Manku M. Clinical characteristics and serum essential fatty acid levels in hyperactive children. Clin Pediatr (Philadelphia) 1987; 26(8): 406-11.
Shakeri J, Khanegi M, Golshani S et al. Effects of Omega-3 Supplement in the Treatment of Patients with Bipolar I Disorder. Int J Prev Med. 2016 May 19;7:77. doi: 10.4103/2008-7802.182734. eCollection 2016.
McNamara RK, Welge JA. Meta-analysis of erythrocyte polyunsaturated fatty acid biostatus in bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disord. 2016 Apr 18. doi: 10.1111/bdi.12386. [Epub ahead of print]
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Saunders EF, Reider A, Singh G, Gelenberg AJ, Rapoport SI. Low unesterified:esterified eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plasma concentration ratio is associated with bipolar disorder episodes, and omega-3 plasma concentrations are altered by treatment. Bipolar Disord. 2015 Nov;17(7):729-42.
McNamara RK, Jandacek R, Tso P, Blom TJ, Welge JA, Strawn JR, Adler CM, DelBello MP, Strakowski SM. First-episode bipolar disorder is associated with erythrocyte membrane docosahexaenoic acid deficits: Dissociation from clinical response to lithium or quetiapine. Psychiatry Res. 2015 Oct 9. pii: S0165-1781(15)30394-2.
Clayton EH, Hanstock TL, Hirneth SJ et al. Reduced mania and depression in juvenile bipolar disorder associated with long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2009 Aug;63(8):1037-1040.
Stoll AL, Severus WE, Freeman MP, Rueter S, Zboyan HA, Diamond E, Cress KK, Marangell LB. Omega 3 fatty acids in bipolar disorder: a preliminary double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1999;56:407-12.
Amminger GP, Chanen AM, Ohmann S et al. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in adolescents with borderline personality disorder and ultra-high risk criteria for psychosis: a post hoc subgroup analysis of a double-blind, randomized controlled trial. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie. 2013;58(7):402-408.
Zanarini MC, Frankenburg FR. omega-3 Fatty acid treatment of women with borderline personality disorder: a double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study. Am J Psychiatry. 2003 Jan;160(1):167-169.
Su KP, Yang HT, Chang JP3 Shih YH, Guu TW, Kumaran SS, et al. Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids have different effects on peripheral phospholipase A2 gene expressions in acute depressed patients. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2017 Jun 23. [Epub ahead of print]
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Trebatická J, Hradečná Z, Böhmer F, Vaváková M, Waczulíková I, Garaiova I, et al. Emulsified omega-3 fatty-acids modulate the symptoms of depressive disorder in children and adolescents: a pilot study. Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health. 2017 Jul 5;11:30. eCollection 2017.
Ganança L, Galfalvy HC, Oquendo MA et al. Lipid correlates of antidepressant response to omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation: A pilot study. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2017 Apr;119:38-44.
Chang JP, Lin CY, Lin PY et al. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammatory markers in major depressive episodes during pregnancy. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2017 May 20.
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Ravi S, Khalili H, Abbasian L, Arbabi M, Ghaeli P. Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Depressive Symptoms in HIV-Positive Individuals: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial. Ann Pharmacother. 2016 Jun 20. pii: 1060028016656017. [Epub ahead of print]
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Husted KS, Bouzinova EV. The importance of n-6/n-3 fatty acids ratio in the major depressive disorder. Medicina (Kaunas). 2016;52(3):139-47. doi: 10.1016/j.medici.2016.05.003. Epub 2016 May 30.
Parletta N, Zarnowiecki D, Cho J et al. People with schizophrenia and depression have a low omega-3 index. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2016 Jul;110:42-7. doi: 10.1016/j.plefa.2016.05.007. Epub 2016 May 13.
Khajehnasiri F, Akhondzadeh S, Mortazavi SB et al. Are Supplementation of Omega-3 and Ascorbic Acid Effective in Reducing Oxidative Stress and Depression among Depressed Shift Workers? Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2016 May 10:1-12. [Epub ahead of print]
Bigornia SJ, Harris WS, Falcón LM et al. The Omega-3 Index Is Inversely Associated with Depressive Symptoms among Individuals with Elevated Oxidative Stress Biomarkers. J Nutr. 2016 Mar 2. pii: jn222562. [Epub ahead of print]
Mocking RJ, Harmsen I, Assies J, Koeter MW, Ruhé HG, Schene AH. Meta-analysis and meta-regression of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation for major depressive disorder. Transl Psychiatry. 2016 Mar 15;6:e756. doi: 10.1038/tp.2016.29.
Carney RM, Steinmeyer BC, Freedland KE et al. Baseline blood levels of omega-3 and depression remission: a secondary analysis of data from a placebo-controlled trial of omega-3 supplements. J Clin Psychiatry. 2016 Feb;77(2):e138-43. doi: 10.4088/JCP.14m09660.
Chhetry BT, Hezghia A, Miller JM et al. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation and white matter changes in major depression. J Psychiatr Res. 2016 Jan 11;75:65-74. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2015.12.007. [Epub ahead of print]
Pusceddu MM, El Aidy S, Crispie F, O'Sullivan O, Cotter P, Stanton C, Kelly P, Cryan JF, Dinan TG. N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs) Reverse the Impact of Early-Life Stress on the Gut Microbiota. PLoS One. 2015 Oct 1;10(10):e0139721.
Ginty AT, Conklin SM. Short-term supplementation of acute long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids may alter depression status and decrease symptomology among young adults with depression: A preliminary randomized and placebo controlled trial. Psychiatry Res. 2015 Sep 30;229(1-2):485-9.
Ginty AT, Conklin SM. Short-term supplementation of acute long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids may alterdepression status and decrease symptomology among young adults with depression: Apreliminary randomized and placebo controlled trial. Psychiatry Res. 2015 Jun 27. pii: S0165-1781(15)00384-4. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2015.05.072. [Epub ahead of print]
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Haghighi F, Galfalvy H, Chen S, Huang YY, Cooper TB, Burke AK, Oquendo MA, Mann JJ, Sublette ME. DNA methylation perturbations in genes involved in polyunsaturated Fatty Acid biosynthesis associated with depression and suicide risk. Front Neurol. 2015 Apr 28;6:92. doi: 10.3389/fneur.2015.00092.
Deacon G, Kettle C, Hayes D, Dennis C, Tucci J. Omega 3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and the Treatment of Depression. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2015 Apr 1:0.
Rapaport MH, Nierenberg AA, Schettler PJ, Kinkead B, Cardoos A, Walker R, Mischoulon D. Inflammation as a predictive biomarker for response to omega-3 fatty acids in major depressive disorder: a proof-of-concept study. Mol Psychiatry. 2015 Mar 24. doi: 10.1038/mp.2015.22.
Chang JP, Chang SS, Yang HT, Palani M, Chen CP, Su KP. “Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) levels in patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) with and without depression.” Brain Behav Immun. 2015 Feb;44:28-31. doi: 10.1016/j.bbi.2014.11.005.
Larrieu T, Hilal LM, Fourrier C, De Smedt-Peyrusse V, Sans N, Capuron L, Layé S. Nutritional omega-3 modulates neuronal morphology in the prefrontal cortex along with depression-related behaviour through corticosterone secretion. Transl Psychiatry. 2014 Sep 9;4:e437.
McNamara RK, Strimpfel J, Jandacek R, Rider T, Tso P, Welge JA, Strawn JR, Delbello MP. Detection and Treatment of Long-Chain Omega-3 Fatty Acid Deficiency in Adolescents with SSRI-Resistant Major Depressive Disorder. PharmaNutrition. 2014 Apr 1;2(2):38-46.
Beydoun MA, Fanelli Kuczmarski MT, Beydoun HA et al. Omega-3 fatty acid intakes are inversely related to elevated depressive symptoms among United States women. J Nutr. 2013 Sep 4.
Lang UE, Borgwardt S. Molecular mechanisms of depression: perspectives on new treatment strategies. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2013;31(6):761-77.
Lespérance F, Frasure-Smith N, St-André E et al. The efficacy of omega-3 supplementation for major depression: a randomized controlled trial. J Clin Psychiatry. 2011 Aug;72(8):1054-62. doi: 10.4088/JCP.10m05966blu. Epub 2010 Jun 15.
Rondanelli M, Giacosa A, Opizzi A et al. Effect of omega-3 fatty acids supplementation on depressive symptoms and on health-related quality of life in the treatment of elderly women with depression: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. J Am Coll Nutr. 2010 Feb;29(1):55-64.
Lin, PY, Huangb, SY, Su, KP. A Meta¬Analytic Review of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Compositions in Patients with Depression Biological Psychiatry 2010;68(2):140¬147.
Mischoulon D, Papakostas GI, Dording CM, Farabaugh AH, Sonawalla SB, Agoston AM, Smith J, Beaumont EC, Dahan LE, Alpert JE, Nierenberg AA, Fava M. A double-blind, randomized controlled trial of ethyl-eicosapentaenoate for major depressive disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 2009 Dec;70(12):1636-44. Epub 2009 Aug 25.
McNamara RK, Hahn CG, Jandacek R, Rider T, Tso P, Stanford KE, Richtand NM. Selective deficits in the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid in the post-mortem orbitofrontal cortex of patients with major depressive disorder. Biol Psychiatry 2007; 62: 17-24.
Lin PY, Su, KP. A meta-analytic review of double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of antidepressant efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids. J Clin Psychiatry. 2007;68:1056-61.
Irmish G, Schläfke D, Gierow W, Herpertz S, Richter J. Fatty acids and sleep in depressed inpatients. Prostaglandins Leuk Essent Fatty Acids. 2007;76:1-7.
Hibbein JR, Ferguson TA, Blasbalg TL. Omega-3 fatty acid deficiencies in neurodevelopment, aggression and autonomic dysregulation: opportunities for intervention. Int Rev Psychiatry. 2006;18:107-18.
Nemets B, Stahl Z, Belmaker RH. Addition of omega-3 fatty acid to maintenance medication treatment for recurrent unipolar depressive disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 2002;159:477-9.
Posttraumatic stress disorder
Mossaheb N, Schäfer MR, Schlögelhofer M, et al. Predictors of longer-term outcome in the Vienna omega-3 high-risk study. Schizophr Res. 2017 Aug 17.
Cuéllar-Barboza AB, Sánchez-Ruiz JA, Corral PM. Use of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids as Augmentation Therapy in Treatment-Resistant Schizophrenia. Prim Care Companion CNS Disord. 2017 May 4;19(3).
Smesny S, Milleit B, Schaefer MR, Hesse J, Schlögelhofer M, Langbein K, Hipler UC, Berger M, Cotter DR, Sauer H, McGorry PD, Amminger GP. Effects of omega-3 PUFA on immune markers in adolescent individuals at ultra-high risk for psychosis - Results of the randomized controlled Vienna omega-3 study. Schizophr Res. 2017 Jan 23.
Koola MM, Raines JK, Hamilton RG et al. Can anti-inflammatory medications improve symptoms and reduce mortality in schizophrenia? Curr Psychiatr. 2016 May;15(5):52-57. Epub 2016 Apr 25.
Kim SW, Jhon M, Kim JM et al. Relationship between Erythrocyte Fatty Acid Composition and Psychopathology in the Vienna Omega-3 Study. PLoS One. 2016 Mar 10;11(3):e0151417. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0151417. eCollection 2016.
Gavzan H, Sayyah M, Sardari S, Babapour V. Synergistic effect of docosahexaenoic acid on anticonvulsant activity of valproic acid and lamotrigine in animal seizure models. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2015 Oct;388(10):1029-38.
Vesco AT, Lehmann J, Gracious BL, Arnold LE, Young AS, Fristad MA. Omega-3 Supplementation for Psychotic Mania and Comorbid Anxiety in Children. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2015 Sep;25(7):526-34.
Kokacya MH, Inanir S, Copoglu US, Dokuyucu R, Erbas O. The Antipsychotic Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Rats. Am J Med Sci. 2015 Sep;350(3):212-7.
Amminger GP, Schäfer MR, Schlögelhofer M, Klier CM, McGorry PD. Longer-term outcome in the prevention of psychotic disorders by the Vienna omega-3 study. Nat Commun. 2015 Aug 11;6:7934.
Ramsden CE, Faurot KR, Zamora D, Palsson OS, MacIntosh BA, Gaylord S, Taha AY, Rapoport SI, Hibbeln JR, Davis JM, Mann JD. Targeted alterations in dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids improve life functioning and reduce psychological distress among patients with chronic headache: a secondary analysis of a randomized trial. Pain. 2015 Apr;156(4):587-96. doi: 10.1097/01.j.pain.0000460348.84965.47
Amminger GP, Schäfer MR, Papageorgiou K et al. Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids for indicated prevention of psychotic disorders: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2010 Feb;67(2):146-54.
Wang M, Zhang X, Ma L, et al. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ameliorate ethanol-induced adipose hyperlipolysis: A mechanism for hepatoprotective effect against alcoholic liver disease. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2017 Aug 25.
Serafine KM, Labay C, France CP. Dietary supplementation with fish oil prevents high fat diet-induced enhancement of sensitivity to the locomotor stimulating effects of cocaine in adolescent female rats. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2016 May 24. pii: S0376-8716(16)30119-3. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2016.05.013. [Epub ahead of print]
Neuroinflammatory PARP pathways in ethanol-dependent neurodegeneration: Suppression by Omega-3 fatty acid. European Society for Biomedical Research on Alcoholism, September 8–11, 2013 Warsaw, Poland. Free oral communications. Supported by USPHS UO1 AA018279 and the Loyola Univ. Alcohol Research Program.
Buydens-Branchey L, Branchey M. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids decrease anxiety feelings in a population of substance abusers. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2006 Dec;26(6):661-5.
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