The relation between seafood consumption, omega-3 fatty acids intake and the prevalence of depression in the PREDIMED-Plus trial
The PREDIMED-Plus project assesses the effect of an intensive intervention with weight-loss goals, based on the consumption of a hypocaloric Mediterranean diet, encouraging physical activity and behavioural therapy in the prevention of cardiovascular disease, with a six-year follow-up.
The aim of this analysis was to determine the type of relation between seafood consumption and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA) intake and the prevalence of depression in a cross-section of the PREDIMED-Plus project. Seafood consumption and ω-3 PUFA intake were assessed using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Diagnosis of depression or use of antidepressants were considered as outcome. Depressive symptoms were collected by the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between seafood products and ω-3 PUFA consumption and depression. Multiple linear regression models were fitted to assess the association between fish and long-chain (LC) ω-3 PUFA intake and depressive symptoms.
Out of the sample of 6,587 participants from the PREDIMED-Plus trial, there were a total of 1367 cases of depression. Total seafood consumption was not associated with depression. Moderate intake of total ω-3 PUFA (approximately 0.5 to 1 g/day) was significantly associated with a lower prevalence of depression. The results show an inverse relation between moderate fish and ω-3 PUFA consumption and the prevalence of depression and intensity of depressive symptoms, but this was not replicated with high ω-3 PUFA consumption, suggesting a U- or J-shaped relation between fish and ω-3 PUFA intake and depression.